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English Language Quiz For IBPS & SBI Exam | 14-09-2021

Swati Mahendras

 

 




Dear Readers,

Mahendras has started special quizzes for IBPS & SBI Exam so that you can practice more and more to crack the examination. This IBPS & SBI Exam special quiz series will mold your preparations in the right direction and the regular practice of these quizzes will be really very helpful in scoring good marks in the Examination. Here we are providing you the important question of reasoning ability for the IBPS & SBI Exam.


Q1-10. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some questions.

Poverty remains a rural problem with a vast majority of the poor located in rural areas. According to the Planning Commission, the total number of poor was 270 million of which 217 million lived in rural areas (80 per cent).

If the states are classified into low-, middle- and high-income groups based on per capita income, each group recorded a reduction of 7-8 percentage points in the share of rural poor in total poor over the period (in low-income states, for example, from about 86 per cent to 79 per cent).

However, the incidence of poverty in rural and urban areas (i.e., the proportion of poor, say, in rural population) varies across these income groups. First, in each income group, the incidence of rural poverty is considerably higher than that of urban poverty, especially in low- and middle-income states. Reductions in both rural and urban poverty were lower in low-income states (2-3 percentage points) than in the two remaining groups (4-8 percentage points).

The higher the per capita expenditure (as a proxy for income) in a state, the lower was the headcount ratio of the poor (or proportion of poor in the rural population). So growth matters. Besides, if the preceding three years of the NSS records showed an annual growth rate of income of more than 2.5 per cent in a state, the poverty reduction was greater. These findings illustrate that not just growth but also its duration matter in poverty reduction.

Contrary to the assertion by Panagariya, the higher the inequality in consumption expenditure distribution, measured as the Gini coefficient, the lower was the poverty reduction. In other words, if a fast-growing state also experiences a rise in income inequality, poverty reduction would be weaker relative to a state with the same growth rate but lower inequality.

We tried to capture the effect of rural-urban migration on rural poverty by considering the difference in urban-rural incomes. This effect is positive and consistent with the conjecture that younger and better-off individuals tend to migrate to urban areas and thus poverty rises among those left behind.

Continuity of the political regime was measured in terms of whether the same party ruled in each sample year. While both the Congress and BJP accomplished poverty reduction in equal measure, it was the continuity of the former (and its policies) that was more effective.

Although the socio-economic profile of BIMARU states has improved, they still account for a higher incidence of rural poverty than other states. So even with growth acceleration, rural poverty persists. Besides, while states with higher proportions of SCs in the rural population achieved faster reduction in poverty, those with higher proportions of STs did not. This finding is important as the latter are generally more deprived given their social and economic exclusion.

The results for urban poverty are similar in some respects. Higher per capita expenditure as also growth spells less poverty. What is surprising is that not only is higher inequality associated with higher prevalence of poverty but also has a much larger (absolute) effect than growth of income. In other words, a sharp rise in inequality more than offsets the favourable effect of income growth on urban poverty.

Somewhat surprising is the absence of empirically robust relationships between nature of political regime and its continuity, and poverty. While the urban bias of policies and welfare schemes remains pervasive, it cannot be dismissed out of hand that livelihoods at low wages/earnings in urban areas are not as dependent on these schemes as in rural areas. A case in point is the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.

Deeper doubts are raised about the inclusiveness of growth in urban areas. While the BIMARU states continue to be associated with a higher incidence of poverty in urban areas too, it is not confirmed that there are higher benefits of growth in states with higher proportions of SC and ST populations. In other words, such states did not benefit more than others, and thus assertions of inclusive growth are further undermined.

In conclusion, emphatic assertions of inclusiveness of growth uplifting the poor across diverse states and belonging to socially and economically disadvantaged groups, and the outright dismissal of the offsetting effect of higher income inequality are dubious, if not misleading.

1 Which of the following is/are TRUE in the context of the passage?

A. There are higher benefits of growth in states with higher proportions of SC and ST populations.

B. The government makes policies focusing on the welfare of urban areas only.

C. States with higher proportions of SCs in the rural population achieved a slower reduction in poverty.

01. Only B

02. Only C

03. Only A

04. All except C

05. All of the above

2 Which point best characterizes the socio-economic profile of BIMARU states, according to the passage?

01. Poverty is dependent on the efficacy of the policies implemented.

02. They have a higher number of poor people residing in villages than those in other states.

03. Their per capita income is higher than those in other states.

04. Only 1 and 3

05. Not mentioned in the passage.

3 What is meant by ‘Urban bias of policies’ as mentioned in the passage?

01. Urban areas have made significant progress, in the recent past.

02. Policies related to infrastructure development in urban areas, have not been implemented well.

03. The rural areas have always been allocated more funds, by the government, for development purposes.

04. The schemes are made considering the growth and betterment of urban areas only.

05. Not mentioned in the passage

4 Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.

OFFSETS


01. Balances

02. Pushes

03. Hypothesizes

04. Imbalances

05. Correlates

5 Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.

DISMISSAL


01. Projection

02. Exile

03. Acceptance

04. Notice

05. Commence

6 Choose the word which is most nearly the SIMILAR in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.

CONJECTURE


01. Hideous

02. Honour

03. Valour

04. Conspiracy

05. Notion

7 Choose the word which is most nearly the SIMILAR in meaning to the word given in bold as used in the passage.

ROBUST


01. Strong

02. Murky

03. Prosperity

04. Fragile

05. Foul

8 According to the passage, which of the following can be considered the reason for the young generation to migrate to urban areas?

01. They expect better opportunities in urban areas

02. These individuals do not receive proper education

03. They are charmed by the city life

04. Rural areas do not develop as fast as urban areas do

05. Not clearly mentioned in the passage

9 How was the effect of rural-urban migration on rural poverty measured?

01. It was measured by analysing the difference between rural and urban income earned by people of rural and urban areas.

02. It was measured by analysing the difference in social factors.

03. By the increase in headcounts of poor people

04. The measurement is not possible with the factors discussed in the passage.

05. Not mentioned in the passage.

10 According to the passage, which of the following points has the author mentioned to represent the significance of growth?

01. The data obtained from different sections of society, was not the same, in different states.

02. The poor who received chances of growth, managed to change their lives significantly.

03. The aspect of growth showed effects on individual perception, in all states.

04. The number of the poor was less in the states in which the per capita expenditure was high.

05. Not mentioned in the passage

Answers:-

Q.1 (1)

Q.2 (2)

Q.3 (4)

Q.4 (4)

Q.5 (3)

Q.6 (5)

Q.7 (1)

Q.8 (5)

Q.9 (1)

Q.10 (4)

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