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RBI Assistant Exam 2012: Solved Question Paper

Bankers Guru

Dear Students,

Looking at the RBI Exam ahead, we are providing you Previous Year Paper of RBI Assistant Exam 2012.

Large Dams in India

Bankers Guru
A large dam is classified as one with a minimum height of more than 15 metres from its deepest foundation to the crest.

A dam between 10 and 15 metres in height from its deepest foundation is also included in the classification of a large dam provided it complies with one of the following conditions 

a) length of crest of the dam is not less than 500 metres or

b) capacity of the reservoir formed by the dam is not less than one million cubic metres or

c) the maximum flood discharge dealt with by the dam is not less than 2000 cubic metres per second ord) the dam has specially difficult foundation problems, ore) the dam is of unusual design.

English For PO/CLERK : 31.07.2015

Bankers Guru
Q.1-5. Rearrange the following sentences (A),(B),(C), (D), (E) and (F) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph, then answer the questions given below them.

(A) It’s high time the law is amended to put a stop to illegal trade in all endangered species, irrespective of their origin. 

(B) Though once in a while action is taken against those who breed and sell exotic species but it doesn’t seem to deter traders. 

(C) In such cases, the onus is on state governments to keep tabs on sale of endangered species. But their 

(D) role is restricted to ensuring that the traders have proper licences and the animals and birds are disease-free. 

(E) only species that are endemic to India. Birds and animals that are imported do not have any kind of protection.

(F) The thriving illegal trade of endangered species on the web points to loopholes in the Wildlife Act, 1972. The Act covers

Q.1. Which of the following will be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?

(1) B (2) C (3) F (4) A (5) E

Q.2. Which of the following will be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?

(1) B (2) C (3) F (4) A (5) E

Q.3. Which of the following will be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?

(1) D (2) C (3) F (4) A (5) E

Q.4. Which of the following will be the SIXTH sentence after rearrangement?

(1) B (2) C (3) F (4) A (5) E

Q.5. Which of the following will be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?

(1) B (2) C (3) F (4) A (5) E

Q.6-10. Read each part of the sentence to find out if there is any error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is no error, mark your answer as (5).

Q.6. Anybody who thinks (1)/ that the growth of English (2)/ has been a bane for India (3)/ is seriously out of touch with reality. (4)/ No error (5).

Q.7. English represents, for (1)/ most Indians, the language (2)/ of opportune, while their (3)/ mother tongues are often the language of expression. (4)/ No error (5).

Q.8. The negative approach to (1)/ the state government for (2)/ any progressive project will (3)/ shatter the economy in the long run. (4)/ No error (5).

Q.9. When we Indians are (1)/ driving, we are in such (2)/ a tearing hurry to get to our (3)/ destination that we ignore all traffic rules (4)/. No error (5)

Q.10. All groups, regardless (1)/ with their immediate differences (2)/, have an equal stake in (3)/ bringing about prosperity (4)/. No error (5)


Q.1.(3) Q.2.(2) Q.3.(1) Q.4.(4) Q.5.(5) Q.6.(5) Q.7.(3) Q.8.(1) Q.9.(5) Q.10.(2)


Bankers Guru
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India has been decided to conduct online examination for the above recruitment on 20th August, 2015 as under:

FOR THE POST OF ASSISTANT .. 20-08-2015 (10 AM to 12 Noon)

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India informed that the pre-examination training will be conducted in Hyderabad and New Delhi from 03-08-2015 to 06-08-2015 to those candidates who belong to SC/ST category and have sent their requests for training in terms of IRDAI notification dated 17-06-2015.

Vocabulary Words - 31.07.2015

Bankers Guru
1. SOLILOQUIZE (VERB): read out loud; narrate

Synonyms: rehearse, deliver Antonyms: suppress, withhold

Example Sentence:

As soon as he arrived there he impatiently seated himself in an easy chair and began to soliloquize about the upcoming debate competition.

2. PREVISION (VERB): expect; predict

Synonyms: assume, forecast Antonyms: doubt, be unready

Example Sentence:

The intelligent people not only show previsions and predictions, but they try to have these predictions succeed by their own intervention in the process.

3. STAMPEDE (NOUN): rush of animals

Synonyms: panic, charge Antonyms: retreat, standing

Example Sentence:

Last week, several hundred Shia pilgrims in Baghdad were killed in a stampede sparked by rumours of a suicide bomber in their midst.

4. AMUCK (ADVERB): crazily

Synonyms: berserk, madly Antonyms: calm, balanced

Example Sentence:

When the nightclub caught fire, persons present there ran amuck, blocking the exits. 

5. PACT (NOUN): agreement

Synonyms: compact, contract Antonyms: disagreement, discord

Example Sentence:

The United States has rejected North Korean demands for a military non-aggression pact.

6. RELEGATE (VERB): assign, transfer

Synonyms: consign, entrust Antonyms: deny, disapprove

Example Sentence:

Creative subjects such as art, geography and music were relegated in favor of English, maths and science.

7. PETULANT (ADJECTIVE): crabby, moody

Synonyms: cranky, whiny Antonyms: cheerful, happy 

Example Sentence:

Sergio Garcia faces disciplinary action for his petulant behavior during his third round at U.S. Wimbledon open. 

8. WHITTLE DOWN (VERB): cut shorter

Synonyms: curtail, prune Antonyms: expand, lengthen

Example Sentence:

After written examination, in which around 2800 candidates are likely to appear, personal interviews will be held to whittle the number down to 250. 

9. TORTUOUS (ADJECTIVE): very twisted

Synonyms: convoluted, meandering Antonyms: direct, simple

Example Sentence:

Under these clauses of the new act, only when people are committing or threatening to 

commit a criminal or tortuous act can be prosecuted.


Synonyms: violate, infringe Antonyms: behave, obey

Example Sentence:

All soldiers who serve their time and never transgress any of the regulations will receive an honorable discharge.


Bankers Guru
State Bank of India has declared the Marks of Online Examination for Recruitment in Clerical Cadre in Associate Banks of State Bank of India. The Online Examination was conducted during January 2015 & February 2015 and Interview was conduct during May 2015. The Final Result was declared on 13th July 2015.

List of countries and capitals with currency and language

Bankers Guru
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals, and including their respective currencies and native languages.

States and Union Territories

Bankers Guru
States and Union Territories

India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive. The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 29 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him/her. From the largest to the smallest, each State/UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festivals, language etc. This section introduces you to the various States/UTs in the Country and urges you to explore their magnificent uniqueness...

States and Capitals

  • Andhra Pradesh (Amaravati)
  • Arunachal Pradesh (Itanagar)
  • Assam (Dispur)
  • Bihar (Patna)
  • Chhattisgarh (Raipur)
  • Goa (Panaji)
  • Gujarat (Gandhinagar)
  • Haryana (Chandigarh)
  • Himachal Pradesh (Shimla)
  • Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar{S*}, Jammu{W*})
  • Jharkhand (Ranchi)
  • Karnataka (Bangalore)
  • Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram)
  • Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal)
  • Maharashtra (Mumbai)
  • Manipur (Imphal)
  • Meghalaya (Shillong)
  • Mizoram (Aizawl)
  • Nagaland (Kohima)
  • Odisha (Bhubaneshwar)
  • Punjab (Chandigarh)
  • Rajasthan (Jaipur)
  • Sikkim (Gangtok)
  • Tamil Nadu (Chennai)
  • Telangana (Hyderabad)
  • Tripura (Agartala)
  • Uttarakhand (Dehradun)
  • Uttar Pradesh (Lucknow)
  • West Bengal (Kolkata)

Union Territories and Capitals

  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Port Blair)
  • Chandigarh (Chandigarh)
  • The Government of NCT of Delhi (Delhi)
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Silvassa)
  • Daman and Diu (Daman)
  • Lakshadweep (Kavaratti)
  • Puducherry (Puducherry)

* S (Summer) and * W (Winter)

Vocabulary - 30.07.2015

Bankers Guru

Synonyms: lethargic, unenergetic Antonyms: active, attentive

Example Sentence:

They do careless, indifferent, shiftless, reckless work, and then demand a living-wage.

2. FLAT-FOOTED (ADJECTIVE): unprepared

Synonyms: napping, daydreaming Antonyms: watchful, vigilant

Example Sentence:

Mining companies were caught flat-footed by cyber-attacks.

3. CAMBER (VERB): curve

Synonyms: arc, bend Antonyms: compress, condense

Example Sentence:

The camber of this playing field helps water drain off.


Synonyms: banal, common Antonyms: original, desirable

Example Sentence:

“The Plan is hardly new. It is a warmed-over version of the strategy Cheney and his coauthors rolled out in 1992 as the answer.” 

5. PLUMMET (VERB): fall hard and fast

Synonyms: collapse, decline Antonyms: ascend, grow

Example Sentence:

Stock prices plummeted after the news of the oil spill.

6. PALAVER (NOUN): empty talk

Synonyms: babble, cajolery Antonyms: quiet, silence

Example Sentence:

He seemed at first much pleased of the situation, but after examining the captives closely he called a palaver.

7. BRAVURA (NOUN): boldness, braveness

Synonyms: audacity, fortitude Antonyms: cowardice, meekness 

Example Sentence:

She raised the piano-cover and began playing a dashing bravura that was strikingly out of place in the dismantled room, then she closed the piano-lid with a slam. 

8. SOLECISM (NOUN): misuse

Synonyms: impropriety, mistake Antonyms: accuracy, certainty

Example Sentence:

I would I saw her once more, but to explain to her the solecism of which her inexperience hath rendered her guilty. 


Synonyms: ruthless, abundant Antonyms: gentle, merciful

Example Sentence:

My purposes, my views, my beliefs were the Procrustean bed upon which every act of  hers was measured.

10. SOLIPSISM (NOUN): theory that only the self exists 

Synonyms: egoism, self-containment Antonyms: companionship, empathy

Example Sentence:

He knew his wife’s solipsism would prevent her from regarding his injury as anything but an infringement on her freedom to do what she liked.

List of Thermal Power Plants & Stations in India

Bankers Guru
A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fossil fuel resources generally used to heat the water. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy. Certain thermal power plants also are designed to produce heat energy for industrial purposes of district heating, or desalination of water, in addition to generating electrical power. Globally, fossil-fuel power stations produce a large part of man-made CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and efforts to reduce these are varied and widespread.

Click Here For View & Download

2015 Ramon Magsaysay Awardees

Bankers Guru
The Board of Trustees of the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation (RMAF) today announced that this year five individuals from India, Laos, Myanmar, and the Philippines will receive Asia’s premier prize, the Ramon Magsaysay Award. The 2015 Magsaysay Awardees are: 

Kommaly Chanthavong, from Laos.  She is being recognized for “her fearless, indomitable spirit to revive and develop the ancient Laotian art of silk weaving, creating livelihoods for thousands of poor, war-displaced Laotians, and thus preserving the dignity of women and her nation’s priceless silken cultural treasure.”

Ligaya Fernando-Amilbangsa, from the Philippines.  She is being recognized for “her single-minded crusade in preserving the endangered artistic heritage of southern Philippines, and in creatively propagating a dance form that celebrates and deepens the sense of shared cultural identity among Asians.”

Kyaw Thu, from Myanmar.  He is being recognized for “his generous compassion in addressing the fundamental needs of both the living and the dead in Myanmar -- regardless of their class or religion -- and his channeling personal fame and privilege to mobilize many others toward serving the greater social good.”

Anshu Gupta, from India.  He is being recognized for “his creative vision in transforming the culture of giving in India, his enterprising leadership in treating cloth as a sustainable development resource for the poor, and in reminding the world that true giving always respects and preserves human dignity.”

Sanjiv Chaturvedi, for Emergent Leadership, from India.  He is being recognized for “his exemplary integrity, courage and tenacity in uncompromisingly exposing and painstakingly investigating corruption in public office, and his resolute crafting of program and system improvements to ensure that government honorably serves the people of India.”

Established in 1957, the Ramon Magsaysay Award is Asia’s highest honor and is widely regarded as the region’s equivalent of the Nobel Prize.  It celebrates the memory and leadership example of the third Philippine president after whom the award is named, and is given every year to individuals or organizations in Asia who manifest the same selfless service and transformative influence that ruled the life of the late and beloved Filipino leader. 

“The Magsaysay awardees of 2015,” says RMAF President Carmencita Abella, “are truly stoking fresh hopes for a better Asia.  Clearly, they are creating bold solutions to deeply-rooted social problems in their respective societies, problems which are most damaging to the lives of those trapped in poverty, ignorance, prejudice, and unjust systems.  It is also clear that through their solutions each of these inspiring leaders is building more hopeful lives among their people -- one smart, impassioned, and persistent step at a time.”

“While their respective social causes and leadership solutions are uniquely their own, there is one thing this year’s Magsaysay laureates all share in common:  a greatness of spirit that infuses their crusade for change. All are unafraid to take on large causes.  All have refused to give up, despite meager resources, daunting adversity and strong opposition.  Their approaches are all deeply anchored in a respect for human dignity, and a faith in the power of collective endeavor.   We have much to learn from the 2015 Magsaysay awardees, and much to celebrate about their greatness of spirit.”

The five 2015 Magsaysay awardees join the community of 307 other Magsaysay laureates who have received Asia’s highest honor to date.  

This year’s Magsaysay Award winners will each receive a certificate, a medallion bearing the likeness of the late President, and a cash prize. They will be formally conferred the Magsaysay Award during formal Presentation Ceremonies to be held on Monday, 31 August 2015 at the Cultural Center of the Philippines,  to which the public is cordially invited.   

Computer Knowledge : 29.07.2015

Bankers Guru
Computer Knowledge

1. The overall description of a database is called______:

(1) Data definition

(2) Data manipulation

(3) Data integrity

(4) Database schema

(5) None of these

Ans. (4) The overall description of a database is called Database schema.

2. Which is proper subset designed to support ‘views’ belonging to different classes of users in order to hide or protect information?

(1) Schema

(2) Subschema

(3) Non-schema

(4) None-subschema

(5) None of these

Ans. (2) Sub schema is proper subset designed to support ‘views’ belonging to different classes of users in order to hide or protect information.

3. Who interact with the system without writing a program?

(1) Naïve users

(2) Casual users

(3) Sophisticated user

(4) All of these

(5) None of these

Ans (3) Sophisticated Users -- These people interact with the system without writing programs.

4. The performance of a data communication network depends on ........................

(1) The number of users

(2) The transmission media

(3) The hardware and software

(4) All of the above

(5) None of these

Ans. (4) The performance of a data communication network depends on all given options.

5. Viruses are network ................... issue.

(1) Performance

(2) Reliability

(3) Security

(4) Management

(5) None of these

Ans. (3) Viruses are network security issue.

6. The information to be communicated in a data communication system is the ....................

(1) Medium

(2) Protocol

(3) Message

(4) Transmission

(5) Topology

Ans. (3) The information to be communicated in a data communication system is the Message.

7. ..................... is the division of one task among multiple computers.

(1) Distributed Processing

(2) Distributed Messaging

(3) Distributed Telephony

(4) Electronic Messaging

(5) None of these

Ans. (1) Distributed Processing is the division of one task among multiple computers.

8. Which topology requires a central controller or hub?

(1) Mesh

(2) Star

(3) Bus

(4) Ring

(5) Router

Ans. (2) Star topology requires a central controller or hub.

9. ____________ is a process that permits multiple computers to use the same IP address and hide their actual IP addresses from the Internet.

(1) Routing

(2) Network address translation (NAT)

(3) Signature referencing

(4) Packet filtering

(5) None of these

Ans. (2) NAT is a process that permits multiple computers to use the same IP address and hide their actual IP addresses from the Internet.

10. Dynamic addressing makes it more difficult for hackers to find likely victims because ______.

(1) the ISP assigns counterfeit IP addresses.

(2) the IP address is protected by a firewall.

(3) the ISP hides the IP addresses for computers on their network.

(4) the IP address changes each time a user logs on to their ISP.

(5) None of these

Ans. (4) Dynamic addressing makes it more difficult for hackers to find likely victims because the IP address changes each time a user logs on to their ISP

Vocabulary - 29.07.2015

Bankers Guru

Synonyms: ingenuous, plain Antonyms: contrived, complicated

Example Sentence:

The couple’s artless manner made us feel comfortable and at home.

2. CAREEN (VERB): tilt; move wildly down path

Synonyms: lurch, bend Antonyms: straighten

Example Sentence:

The truck careened down the hill looking as if it might topple into the ditch.

3. VAPID (ADJECTIVE): flat, dull

Synonyms: boring, insipid Antonyms: exciting, interesting

Example Sentence:

His parents had hoped that he would study accounting, but he considered it a vapid subject.

4. PUERILE (ADJECTIVE): childish

Synonyms: callow, infantile Antonyms: mature, adult

Example Sentence:

The fireman was scolded for playing puerile pranks on his coworkers.

5. GLEAN (VERB): pick out, collect

Synonyms: deduce, gather Antonyms: disperse, divide

Example Sentence:

Her research gleanings confirmed my theory.

6. CAROM (VERB): bounce

Synonyms: glance, ricochet 

Example Sentence:

The baseball caromed off the wall.

7. EXTEMPORIZE (VERB): improvise

Synonyms: invent, make up Antonyms: plan, prepare 

Example Sentence:

He could scarcely recollect a word of his part, but he remembered the general drift of it, and had ready wit enough to extemporize. 

8. DEIGN (VERB): lower oneself

Synonyms: consent, stoop Antonyms: oppose, refuse

Example Sentence:

She did not deign to respond to the impolite questions.

9. QUERULOUS (ADJECTIVE): grouchy, hard to please

Synonyms: carping, complaining Antonyms: cheerful, happy

Example Sentence:

Caring for this querulous patient had become a tiresome task.

10. MIRTH (NOUN): great joy 

Synonyms: laughter, rejoicing Antonyms: sorrow, pain

Example Sentence:

Their holiday dinners were always filled with mirth.


Bankers Guru
Staff Selection Commission has declared the result for Recruitment of Sub-Inspectors in Delhi Police, CAPFs and Assistant Sub -Inspectors in CISF Examination, 2015 - Result of Paper-I (Male & Female).

Recruitment of Sub-Inspectors in Delhi Police, CAPFs and Assistant Sub -Inspectors in CISF Examination, 2015 - Result of Paper-I (Male)

Recruitment of Sub-Inspectors in Delhi Police, CAPFs and Assistant Sub -Inspectors in CISF Examination, 2015 - Result of Paper-I (Female)

List of National Parks of India

Bankers Guru
National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand. By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. Further federal legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. As of April 2012, there were 112 national parks. All national park lands then encompassed a total 39,919 km2 (15,413 sq mi) , comprising 1.21% of India's total surface area.

A total of 166 national parks have been authorized. Plans are underway to establish the remaining scheduled parks. All of India's national parks are listed below alongside their home state or territory, area and the date that they were established. See Protected areas of India for an overview of all Indian protected

Aryapuram Co-Operative Bank Recruitment 2015-16

Bankers Guru
The Aryapuram Co-Operative Bank has released the notification for the recruitment of Officer Scale (I,II & III), Officer Scale (I), Officer Scale (I,II & III) and Office Assistant.

Computer Knowledge : 28.07.2015

Bankers Guru
Computer Knowledge 

1. Motorola is well known for making chips for ____________ computers. 

(1) Dell 

(2) Apple 

(3) IBM notebook 

(4) Mainframe 

(5) Supercomputer 

Ans. (2) Motorola is well known for making chips for Apple computers. 

2. The first step in the CPU machine cycle is _____. 

(1) Fetch 

(2) Execute 

(3) Decode 

(4) Store 

(5) None of these 

Ans. (1) The first step in the CPU machine cycle is fetching. 

3. The purpose of cache is to ______. 

(1) store data that will be moved from one computer to another 

(2) hold frequently used instructions and data to speed processing 

(3) permanently store data that is retained when the computer is turned off 

(4) temporarily hold data as it is about to be sent through the ALU for execution 

(5) None of these 

Ans. (2) cache hold frequently used instructions and data to speed processing. 

4. Which of the following statements about the CPU is FALSE? 

(1) The machine cycle is a repetitive set of steps performed by the CPU. 

(2) The CPU clock cycle determines how quickly the computer accomplishes a process. 

(3) The complexity of the CPU design permits unlimited storage space. 

(4) The CPU's control unit remembers the proper sequence for the processing stages. 

(5) The complexity of the CPU design permits limited storage space 

Ans. (3) The complexity of the CPU design permits unlimited storage space. 

5. One of the functions of the arithmetic logic unit is to ______. 

(1) receive data from the registers. 

(2) convert negative numbers to hexadecimal code. 

(3) send logical operations, such as AND or NOT, to the alphabetic unit. 

(4) retrieve data from virtual memory 

(5) send data to virtual memory. 

Ans. (1) One of the functions of the arithmetic logic unit is to receive data from the registers. 

6. Random Access Memory is ____. 

(1) faster than cache memory. 

(2) essential for long-term storage. 

(3) integrated within the CPU 

(4) determined by the type and speed of the CPU 

(5) None of these 

Ans. (4) Random Access Memory is determined by the type and speed of the CPU. 

7. ____________ is a type of memory that recharges leaky capacitors so they continue to retain stored data. 

(1) PROM 

(2) Cache 

(3) SRAM 

(4) DRAM 

(5) SDRAM 

Ans. (4) DRAM is a type of memory that recharges leaky capacitors so they continue to retain stored data. 

8. A(n) ____________ enables sound cards to communicate with the motherboard. 

(1) pipeline 

(2) modem 

(3) local bus 

(4) expansion bus 

(5) None of these 

Ans. (4) Expansion bus enables sound cards to communicate with the motherboard. 

9. The Analysis step of the SDLC results in a _______. 

(1) Make or buy decision. 

(2) Set of user requirements. 

(3) Program code listing. 

(4) Set of diagrams and flowcharts of the new system 

(5) None of these 

Ans. (2) The Analysis step of the SDLC results in a set of user requirements. 

10. The systems analyst's role in a software project is to _______. 

(1) Provide documentation for the new system that needs to be written. 

(2) Interact with users to determine their specific needs. 

(3) Manage and coordinate software project efforts. 

(4) Write program source code based on design specifications 

(5) None of these 

Ans. (2) Interact with users to determine their specific needs 

Vocabulary Words - 28.07.2015

Bankers Guru
1. IMPRIMATUR (NOUN): approval

Synonyms: permission, permit Antonyms: prohibition, veto

Example Sentence:

Without the imprimatur of the FDA, this drug will remain inaccessible to many who need it.

2. OBSEQUIOUS (ADJECTIVE): groveling, submissive

Synonyms: abject, complacent Antonyms: arrogant, assertive

Example Sentence:

The obsequious relatives made frequent visits to their elderly and very wealthy aunt.

3. ARRANT (ADJECTIVE): flagrant

Synonyms: absolute, blatant Antonyms: mitigated, regenerate

Example Sentence:

He is an arrant flirt who tries to win over women right in front of their husbands.

4. INTRANSIGENT (ADJECTIVE): political conservatisms

Synonyms: mulish, adamant Antonyms: compliant, flexible

Example Sentence:

It was fruitless to plead with someone known for his intransigent will.

5. INURE (VERB): accustom

Synonyms: habituate, familiarize Antonyms: neglect, soften

Example Sentence:

By now he was inured to the lack of privacy in prison.


Synonyms: resounding, blaring Antonyms: soft, low

Example Sentence:

His stentorian voice was heard above the din of battle.

7. POLYSEMY (NOUN): uncertainty of meaning

Synonyms: doubt, vagueness Antonyms: certainty, clarity 

Example Sentence:

Many English words are characterized by polysemy. 

8. VAINGLORY (NOUN): pride

Synonyms: arrogance, bragging Antonyms: humility, meekness

Example Sentence:

Gold, it was clear, represented the Victoria they wanted to put behind them: vainglorious and indiscriminate.

9. HYPERBOREAN (ADJECTIVE): chilly, freezing

Synonyms: bitter, bleak Antonyms: mild, nice

Example Sentence:

In northern Asia are found other aborigines, such as the Ainus of Japan and the so-

called hyperborean races but no materials are at present forthcoming for their history.

10. CONTRIVE (VERB): invent, design 

Synonyms: manipulate, improvise Antonyms: destroy, dissuade

Example Sentence:

The conspirators contrived the overthrow of the ruler.

Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 - 27 July 2015)

Bankers Guru
Former president of India Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam passed away at Bethany Hospital, Shillong due to heart failure after having collapsed during a lecture he was giving at IIM Shillong.

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 - 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Dr. Kalam collapsed during a lecture at IIM Shillong and died of massive cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015.

Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in the India's civilian space program and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.

In 2002, Kalam was elected the President of India in 2002 with the support of the both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the opposition Indian National Congress. After serving a term of 5 years, he returned to civilian life of education, writing, and public service. He has received several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.

Early life and education

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 in a Tamil Muslim family to Jainulabudeen, a boat owner and Ashiamma, a housewife, at Rameswaram, Ramanathapuram District, located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. He came from a poor background and started working at an early age to supplement his family's income. After completing school, Kalam distributed newspapers to financially contribute to his father's income.In his school years, he had average grades, but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn and spend hours on his studies, especially mathematics. He was just a simple man with a great fierceful heart in his childhood After completing his school education at the Ramanathapuram Schwartz Matriculation School, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954. Towards the end of the course, he was not enthusiastic about the subject and would later regret the four years he studied it. He then moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering. While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with the lack of progress and threatened revoking his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. He worked tirelessly on his project and met the deadline, impressing the Dean who later said, "I [Dean] was putting you [Kalam] under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline". He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF.

Career as a scientist

After graduating from Madras Institute of Technology (MIT – Chennai) in 1960, Kalam joined Aeronautical Development Establishment of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as a scientist. Kalam started his career by designing a small helicopter for the Indian Army, but remained unconvinced with the choice of his job at DRDO. Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India's first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near earth's orbit in July 1980. Joining ISRO was one of Kalam's biggest achievements in life and he is said to have found himself when he started to work on the Satellite Launching Vehicle (SLV) project. Kalam first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government's approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.

In 1963–64, he visited NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton Virginia, Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland and Wallops Flight Facility situated at Eastern Shore of Virginia.[5][16] During the period between the 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launching Vehicle (PSLV) and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be success.

Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the country's first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the representative of TBRL, even though he had not participated in the development, test site preparation and weapon designing. In the 1970s, a landmark was achieved by ISRO when the locally built Rohini-1 was launched into space, using the SLV rocket. In the 1970s, Kalam also directed two projects, namely, Project Devil and Project Valiant , which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam's directorship. Kalam played an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects. His research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in the 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an advanced missile programme under his directorship. Kalam and Dr V S Arunachalam, metallurgist and scientific adviser to the Defence Minister, worked on the suggestion by the then Defence Minister, R Venkataraman on a proposal for simultaneous development of a quiver of missiles instead of taking planned missiles one after another. R Venkatraman was instrumental in getting the cabinet approval for allocating ₹388 crores for the mission, named Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and appointed Kalam as the chief executive.[18] Kalam played a major part in developing many missiles under the mission including Agni, an intermediate range ballistic missile and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticised for mismanagement and cost and time overruns.

Kalam was the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister, and the Secretary of Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played an intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Chief Project Coordinator, along with R. Chidambaram during the testing phase.Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country's best known nuclear scientist. However, the director of the site test, K Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a "fizzle" and criticisied Kalam for issuing an incorrect report. Both Kalam and R. Chidambaram dismissed the claims.

In 1998, along with cardiologist Soma Raju, Kalam developed a low cost coronary stent, named the "Kalam-Raju Stent". In 2012, the duo, designed a rugged tablet computer for health care in rural areas, which was named the "Kalam-Raju Tablet".


Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K R Narayanan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing 107,366 votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. He served from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007.

Awards and honours

A P J Abdul Kalam's 79th birthday was recognised as World Student's Day by United Nations.He has also received honorary doctorates from 40 universities.The Government of India has honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1981 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, for his immense and valuable contribution to the scientific research and modernisation of defence technology in India. In 2005, Switzerland declared 26 May as science day to commemorate Kalam's visit in the country.In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society "to recognize excellence in management of and leadership for a space-related project."

Kalam's writings

  • Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology by A P J Abdul Kalam and Roddam Narasimha; Indian Academy of Sciences, 1988
  • India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A P J Abdul Kalam, Y S Rajan; New York, 1998.
  • Wings of Fire: An Autobiography by A P J Abdul Kalam, Arun Tiwari; Universities Press, 1999.
  • Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A P J Abdul Kalam; Viking, 2002.
  • The Luminous Sparks by A P J Abdul Kalam, by; Punya Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2004.
  • Mission India by A P J Abdul Kalam, Paintings by Manav Gupta; Penguin Books, 2005
  • Inspiring Thoughts by A P J Abdul Kalam; Rajpal & Sons, 2007
  • You Are Born To Blossom: Take My Journey Beyond by A P J Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2011.
  • Target 3 Billion" by A P J Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh; December 2011 Publisher Penguin Books.
  • Turning Points: A journey through challenges by A P J Abdul Kalam; Harper Collins India, 2012.
  • My Journey: Transforming Dreams into Actions by A P J Abdul Kalam; August 2013 by the Rupa Publication.
  • A Manifesto for Change: A Sequel to India 2020 by A P J Abdul Kalam and V Ponraj; July 2014 by Harper Collins.
  • Transcendence My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji by A P J Abdul Kalam; June 2015 by Harper Collins India Publication.
Kalam's Biographies

  • Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr Kalam by S Chandra 
  • President A P J Abdul Kalam by R K Pruthi 
  • A P J Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India by K Bhushan 
  • A Little Dream (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal 
  • The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P M Nair 
  • My Days With Mahatma Abdul Kalam by Fr A K George

Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

11th President of India
In office
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
Prime MinisterAtal Bihari Vajpayee
Manmohan Singh
Vice PresidentKrishan Kant
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
Preceded byK R Narayanan
Succeeded byPratibha Patil
Personal details
BornAvul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
15 October 1931 (age 83)
RameswaramRamanathapuram DistrictMadras PresidencyBritish India
(now in Tamil NaduIndia)
Died27 July 2015 (aged 83)
Alma materSt. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli
Madras Institute of Technology
Aerospace scientist

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