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Wednesday, 12 July 2017

History of the Constitution

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History of the Constitution

The major portion of the Indian Subcontinent was under the British rule from 1857 to 1947.

When the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950, it repealed the India Independence Act.

India no more was a dominion of the British Crown and became a sovereign democratic republic.

The date of 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of Independence 1930.

Articles 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 379, 380, 388, 391, 392, 393 and 394 of the Constitution came into force on 26 November 1949 and the remaining articles on 26 January 1950.

  • Making of the Constitution
          THE COMPANY RULE (1773–1858) –

  1.  Regulating Act of 1773
  2. This act is of great constitutional importance as
       i. it was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the                East India Company in India;

      ii. it recognized, for the first time, the political and administrative functions of the Company; and

      iii. it laid the foundations of central administration in India.

  •     Pitt’s India Act of 1784
  1.  In a bid to rectify the defects of the Regulating Act of 1773, the British Parliament passed the  Amending Act of 1781,
  2.  Also known as the Act of Settlement.
  3. The next important act was the Pitt’s India Act 2 of 1784.

  •     Charter Act of 1833

  1.  This Act was the final step towards centralization in British India.
  •     Charter Act of 1853
  1. The last of the series of Charter Acts passed by the British Parliament between 1793 and 1853.

  •    THE CROWN RULE (1858–1947)

  •    Government of India Act of 1858

      i. This significant Act was enacted in the wake of the Revolt of 1857—also known as the First                War of Independence or the ‘sepoy mutiny’.

     ii. The act known as the Act for the Good Government of India abolished the East India                          Company and transferred the powers of government, territories, and revenues to the British                  Crown.

  •       Indian Councils Act of 1861, 1892 and 1909
  1. Three acts were enacted by the British Parliament in 1861, 1892 and 1909 after the great revolt of 1857 as they felt the necessity of seeking the cooperation of the Indians in the administration of their country.

  • Government of India Act of 1919
  1.  On August 20, 1917, the British Government declared that its objective was the gradual  introduction of responsible government in India
  2.  Therefore, the Government of India Act of 1919 came into force in 1921.
  3.  This Act is also known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
  4.  Note-Montagu was the Secretary of State for India and Lord Chelmsford was the Viceroy of  India.
  5.  Government of India Act of 1935
  6.  It was the second milestone towards a completely responsible government in India.
  7.  It was a lengthy and detailed document having 321 Sections and 10 Schedules.
  • Indian Independence Act of 1947
  1.  February 20, 1947- the British Prime Minister Clement Atlee declared that the British rule in  India would end by June 30, 1948; after which the power would be transferred to responsible  Indian hands.
  2.  This was followed by the agitation by the Muslim League demanding partition of the country.
  3.  June 3, 1947- the British Government made it clear that any Constitution framed by the  Constituent Assembly of India (formed in 1946) cannot apply to those parts of the country which were unwilling to accept it.
  4.  June 3, 1947-, The Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten, put forth the Mountbatten Plan.
  5.  The plan was accepted by the Congress and the Muslim League.
  6. The immediate effect was given to the plan by enacting the Indian Independence Act.

Q1. The idea of a Constitution was given for the first time by?
A. Mahatma Gandhi

B. Shri M. N. Roy

C. Shri Jawaharlal Nehru

D. None of the above

Q2. The original due date announced by Prime Minister of England, Mr. Attlee, for transfer of power to the responsible Indian hands, was ?

A. February 20, 1947

B. August 15, 1947

C. June 1948

D. June 1949

Ans-C. June 1948

Q3. Which was the first attempt to regulate the affairs of English East India Company in India?

A. Pitts India Act 1784

B. Charter Act 1833

C. The Regulating Act 1773

D. Charter Act of 1833

Ans- C. The Regulating Act 1773

Q4. which among the following acts deprived of monopoly of trade with India to The East India Company (except Tea Trade)?
A. The Charter Act of 1813

B. The Charter Act of 1833

C. The Charter Act of 1853

D. Government of India Act 1858

Ans- A. The Charter Act of 1813
Q5. Minto-Morley Reforms is also known as?
A. Indian Councils Act 1909

B. Indian Councils Act 1892

C. Government of India Act 1919

D. Act of 1861

Ans- A. Indian Councils Act 1909

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