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Wednesday, 22 November 2017

English Language For IBPS PO Mains & Clerk | 22 - 11 - 17

Mahendra Guru
English Language For IBPS PO Mains & Clerk | 22 - 11 - 17

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Devi Durga, the cosmic power principle of the Absolute manifested herself in response to the collective prayer of the gods for subduing devilish death-bound demons creating perpetual disharmony in creation. As a part of this cosmic play, where good triumphs over evil, Durga Puja is celebrated. A society and culture undergoing a critical period is characterised by drastic slide in social, moral and human values. Rule of vice over virtue and shameless evildoing, abandoning all positive teachings tend to cast a shadow over all that ought to have great potential for good. In this context, Durga Puja is exceptionally significant with its theology, mythology, scriptures, customs, festivities and rituals with cultural variations that provide deep insights into life and living.

Durga being Shakti or power personified remains neutral till devotees invoke her intervention. Even Rama sought her blessings before fighting with Ravana. In social life, she brings prosperity and power of knowledge. In cultural life, she endows us with fine arts. In the domain of defence, she gives power to combat evil attackers.

In spiritual life, she annihilates our endless desires multiplying like Raktabij and finally subdues our last enemy, the sense of separateness, the ego, hidden like Mahishasura so that we can progress towards the goal of Self-realisation.

The concept of Durga Puja went through a prolonged process of cultural evolution. In pre-Christian era, she used to be pictured alone, riding a lion. Later on, she was contemplated as spouse of Shiva as the dynamic power principle with her offspring and Shiva as passive consciousness. She is also worshipped as Dasamahavidya, the ten-wisdom-embodiment. 

Durga embodies Shakti, the dynamic aspect of ultimate reality and its role in creation, protection and transformation. Durga also embodies empowerment of women and reverence for them. Durga gives the eternal message of hope and assurance for divine intervention in times of trouble.

Durga Puja intermingles the various parallel legends. Although essentially a spiritual metaphor, the legend of the homecoming of Uma, daughter of the Himalayas inspired innumerable devotional songs called Agamani. Another legend relates to Sati destroying the Shiva-less sacrificial ceremony of Daksha. In Chandi of Markandeya Purana, she first represents herself as Mahamaya, the goddess of cosmic delusion. In the second part, as Mahishasuramardini, the vanquisher of the buffalo-demon and then as Kalika, the killer of Chanda and Munda and their masters Shumbha and Nishumbha, she is seen as protector.

The image of the goddess appears paradoxical being a spiritual metaphor. She is shown as consort of Shiva. Shakti and Shiva symbolise energy and consciousness. Although Ganesh, Saraswati, Kartik and Lakshmi have been associated with her in the battlefield symbolising wisdom, learning, prowess and wealth, the four refer to human pursuits. Ten weapons in her ten hands symbolise subjugation of tenfold sense-attractions before finally overcoming the ego represented by Mahishasura.

Apart from spiritual significance the magnificent socio-religious ceremony as a part of traditional ritual engenders a feeling of oneness among all, despite all differences. It provides a great opportunity for socio-cultural bonding of everyone in society via cultural, religious and artistic programmes performed in attractively decorated pandals, with people turning out in their festive clothes. From once being an exclusive celebration by those who could afford it, Durga Puja is now ‘sarbojanin’ or accessible to all -- larger numbers of people enjoy the celebration and benefit from all the festivities infused with insights.

Q.1. What do Shakti and Shiva symbolise?

(1) Shakti and Shiva symbolise culture and tradition.

(2) Shakti and Shiva symbolise speed.

(3) Shakti and Shiva symbolise energy and consciousness.

(4) Shakti and Shiva symbolise invention.

(5) Shakti and Shiva symbolise blessing and contribution.

Q.2. Which of the following statement/s is/are NOT TRUE in context to the passage?

(1) Larger numbers of people enjoy the celebration and benefit from all the festivities.

(2) Apart from spiritual significance the magnificent socio-religious ceremony as a part of traditional ritual engenders a feeling of oneness among all, despite all differences.

(3) Shakti and Shiva symbolise energy and consciousness.

(4) All the people in all over India celebrate all the festivals.

(5) Durga Puja intermingles the various parallel legends.

Q.3. How, according to the passage, goddess Durga is explained in pre-Christian era and so later on?

(1) Durga is shown as consort of Shiva.

(2) Rule of vice over virtue and shameless evildoing, abandoning all positive teachings tend to cast a shadow over all that ought to have great potential for good.

(3) Durga embodies Shakti, the dynamic aspect of ultimate reality and its role in creation, protection and transformation.

(4) In pre-Christian era, she used to be founded in temples.

(5) In pre-Christian era, she used to be pictured alone, riding a lion. Later on, she was contemplated as spouse of Shiva

Q.4. Which of the following statement/s is/are TRUE in context to the passage?

(A) The concept of Durga Puja went through a prolonged process of cultural evolution.

(B) Durga gives the eternal message of hope and assurance for divine intervention in times of trouble.

(C) The image of the goddess appears paradoxical being a spiritual metaphor.

(1) Only A

(2) Only B

(3) Only C

(4) Onlt A and B

(5) All A, B and C

Q.5. Ganesh, Saraswati, Kartik and Lakshmi have been associated with her in the battlefield symbolising ___________

(1) the goal of Self-realisation.

(2) Tenfold sense-attractions

(3) Wisdom, learning, prowess and wealth

(4) innumerable devotional songs

(5) fine arts, power and energy.

Q.6. Which of the following is possibly the most appropriate TITLE for the passage?

(1) Navratri

(2) Durga puja - a great cultural bonanza

(3) The sense of separateness

(4) An Indian festival

(5) Embodies empowerment of women

Q.7-8. Choose the word/group of words is most SIMILAR in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

Q.7. DELUSION

(1) reality (2) misbelief (3) ridiculous (4) cupidity (5) alacrity 

Q.8. EMBODIMENT

(1) representation (2) exclusion (3) power (4) noisome (5) solid

Q.9-10. Choose the word/group of words is most OPPOSITE in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

Q.9. MANIFESTED

(1) demonstrate (2) present (3) estimated (4) conceal (5) apply

Q.10. ANNIHILATES

(1) crush (2) destroys (3) amuse (4) autonomy (5) help


ANSWER

1. (3) 2. (4) 3. (5) 4. (5) 5. (3) 6. (2) 7. (2) 8. (1) 9. (4) 10. (5)

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