**MACHINE INPUT**

**In INPUT OUTPUT type of problems, candidates are required to check out the pattern given in the arrangement of the question and then find out the desired output step, according to what the question asked.**

**In order to solve these questions, one has to think that there is some kind of machine**

**or computer which gives output according to what it receives as the input. This machine works on a predetermined pattern and will give output at different steps.**

**Always check the last step of the arrangement you get an idea that what logic are used in the arrangement.**

**Four types of questions are asked from this chapter.**

**(1)**

__Shifting__

__All__**questions are based on interchanging the position of elements. If the given problem is not arrangement based, then check whether shifting is taking place. Just check the first two- three steps, if the words form a particular position are moving to another particular position and that is being repeated then the given problem is shifting.**

**IN SHIFTING---------- WE CAN DETERMINE THE PREVIOUS STEPS EVEN GIVEN INPUT ALSO.**

**BUT IN ARRANGEMENT-------- WE CAN NOT DETERMINE THE PREVIOUS STEPS.**

**(2)**

__Arrangement__

**First of all, check that if there is any arrangement. In the case of an arrangement, words would be arranged in alphabetical order**

**(may be in increasing or in decreasing form)**

**and the number would be arranged in**

**increasing or decreasing order**

**. To check it, just look at the first-three steps, if an arrangement is found then the problem is the arrangement based problem.**

**Sometimes some different logics are used---**

·

**Vowels (May be in increasing or decreasing order)…………………**
·

**Consonant (May be in increasing or decreasing order)…………………**
·

**Vowel…Consonant…Vowel….Consonant…….**
·

**Consonant…..Vowel….Consonant……Vowel………**
·

**Vowels (decreasing form)…………. …………..(increasing form) Consonants.****(3)**

__Arithmetic operations__

**In this type of questions, the input has some numbers. Different steps are obtained by taking the numbers of the input and different arithmetic operations are performed after that.**

**The arithmetic operation is possible if and only if the input has only the numbers. If the input has numbers and the chances of arrangement and shifting are not there, the problem is based on arithmetic operations for sure.**

**Sometimes some different logics are used---**

·

**EVEN NUMBERS (ascending order or descending order)**
·

**ODD NUMBERS (ascending order or descending order)**
·

**Even……Odd…..Even….Odd…… (Ascending order or descending order)**
·

**Odd……Even…….Odd……Even… (Ascending order or descending order)**
·

**Even (increasing/decreasing)……………… ………….……(increasing/decreasing) Odd****(4)**

__Miscellaneous__

**In this type of questions covers miscellaneous questions. This input can be anything and machine performs set of random operations on this.**

**If none of the above types is applicable then you can sure that the given problem is of miscellaneous type.**

**Some important tips**

**1. First of all observe the given input line of words and numbers and the last step of rearrangement, so that candidate may get an idea about the changes in various steps of rearrangement.**

**2. In order to know what changes have been made in each step, observe two consecutive steps carefully.**

**3. Now, correlate the input, the last step and anyone of the middle steps. This will enable you to identify the rule of arrangement.**

**Key Factor-**

·

**It becomes very easy to solve this type of problems if you are able to understand the arrangements of the input.**
·

**It is important to understand above arrangement to solve the question of machine input.**
·

**Mostly it can be easily understood by last step/final output.**
·

**If we go directly towards the final step of an input we find that all numbers/ words are arranged systematically.****The systems can be.**

·

**Numbers - ascending, descending, etc.**
·

**Words - Alphabetically, opposite alphabetically, alphabetically in vowels/consonants etc.**
·

**In mixed form - If numbers and words both are given in arrangement mostly words are only related to next word and number to number.****EXAMPLE OF SHIFTING:**

**A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words rearranges them following a particular rule in each step.**

**The following is illustration of the input and the steps of arrangement**

**Input: sui me ato fe zen u no.**

**Step I: sui ato zen no me fe u**

**Stop II: u fe me no zen ato sui**

**Step III: u me zen sui fe no ato**

**Step IV: ato no fe sui zon me u**

**Step V: ato fe zen u no sui me.**

**and so on ...........**

**As per the rule followed in the above steps, find out in the given questions the appropriate step for the given point.**

**Q.1. If input is “Say not you are only wise yet” then which Step would read as ”are Say only not wise you yet’ ?**

**(1) III (2) XI (3) IX**

**(4) VII (5) None of these**

**Q.2. If step V is ‘lo men chi from yet as know’ then what will be step VIII ?**

**(1) from as lo chi yet know men**

**(2) from as lo chi yet men know**

**(3) men know yet chi lo as from**

**(4) men lo know as yet from chi**

**(5) None of these**

**Q.3. If step VI is “They have done their best to dig” then definitely what will be the input?**

**(1) have They to dig best done their**

**(2) have They to dig done their best**

**(3) have They dig to best done their**

**(4) have They dig to best their done**

**(5) None of these**

**EXPLANATION:**

**Q.1-3.**To solve the problems more easily, we can give numbers to each word.

Input: sui me ato fe zen u no

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Step I: 1 3 5 7 2 4 6

Step II: 6 4 2 7 5 3 1

Step III: 6 2 5 1 4 7 3

Step IV: 3 7 4 1 5 2 6

Step V: 3 4 5 6 7 1 2

Step VI: 2 1 7 6 5 4 3

Step VII: 2 7 5 3 1 6 4

Step VIII: 4 6 1 3 5 7 2

Step IX: 4 1 5 2 6 3 7

**EXAMPLE OF ARRANGEMENT:**

**Now-a-days, the Exams are also giving arrangements from both the sides. Let us try it.**

**A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement.**

**Input: car and home loan borrowers are being addressed.**

**Step I: addressed car and home borrowers are being loan.**

**Step II: addressed and car borrowers are being loan home.**

**Step III: addressed and are borrowers being loan home car.**

**Step IV: addressed and are being loan home car borrowers.**

**Step V: addressed and are loan home car borrowers being.**

**Step V is the last step of the rearrangement of the above input.**

**As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.**

**Input- each of the five questions has only one distinct answer**

**Q.1. How many steps would be needed to complete the arrangement?**

**(1) Four (2) Six (3) Five (4) Seven (5) None of these**

**Q.2. Which step number would be the following output?**

**answer each of one only distinct the question has five**

**(1) IV (2) V (3) VI (4) VII (5) None of these**

**EXPLANATION:**

**In this question, elements are arranging in both sides.**

**One side- Vowels are arranging in increasing order and**

**Other side- Consonants are arranging in decreasing order**

**step by step.**

**Input: each of the five questions has only one distinct answer**

**Step I. answer each of five questions has only one distinct the**

**Step II. answer each of one five has only distinct the question**

**Step III. answer each of one only five distinct the question has**

**Step IV. answer each of one only distinct the question has five**

**Step V. answer each of one only the question has five distinct**

Q.1. Ans (3)

Q.2. Ans (1)

**EXAMPLE OF ARITHMETIC OPERATION:**

**A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement.**

**Q.1. Input - 23 65 21 39 48 56 45**

**Step I - 21 23 65 39 48 56 45**

**Step II - 21 23 39 65 48 56 45**

**Step III- 21 23 39 45 65 48 56**

**Step IV -21 23 39 45 48 65 56**

**Step V - 21 23 39 45 48 56 65**

**Step V is the final step of the above arrangement.**

**As per the above arrangement solve the following question.**

**Q.1. Input - 35 96 28 36 16 29 33**

**How many steps will it take to complete the rearrangement?**

**EXPLANATION:**

**If we focus on above arrangement’s output we analyze that numbers are arranged in ascending order. Finally it is clear that we have to arrange all these numbers in ascending order but if we analyze each step then we find that only one number is arranged in each step.**

**That means the solution must be -**

**Input - 35 96 28 36 16 29 33**

**Step I - 16 35 96 28 36 29 33**

**Step II- 16 28 35 96 36 29 33**

**Step III - 16 28 29 35 96 36 33**

**Step IV - 16 28 29 33 35 96 36**

**Step V- 16 28 29 33 35 36 96**

**Step Vth will be the answer.**

**EXAMPLE OF MISCELLANEOUS:**

**A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement.**

**Input - Ram fell 26 35 In 62 23 well**

**Step I - 62 Ram fell 26 35 In 23 well**

**Step II - 62 fell Ram 26 35 In 23 well**

**Step III - 62 fell 35 Ram 26 In 23 well**

**Step IV- 62 fell 35 In Ram 26 23 well**

**Step V - 62 fell 35 In 26 Ram 23 well**

**And Step Vth is the final step of the rearrangement of the above Input.**

**As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in the following question the appropriate step for the given input.**

**Q.1. Input - Orange Banana 35 32 61 Axe Zoo 18 In**

**How many steps are required to complete the above arrangement?**

**EXPLANATION:**

**If we focus on the last step of arrangement we find that numbers and words are arranged in alternate order and numbers are arranged in descending order and words are arranged in alphabetical order where number starts first as in step I and when we focus on each step we find that each element is arranged step by step.**

**Input - Orange Banana 35 32 61 Axe Zoo 18**

**Step I. 61 Orange Banana 35 32 Axe Zoo 18**

**Step II. 61 Axe Orange Banana 35 32 Zoo 18**

**Step III. 61 Axe 35 Orange Banana 32 Zoo 18**

**Step IV. 61 Axe 35 Banana Orange 32 Zoo 18**

**Step IV. 61 Axe 35 Banana 32 Orange Zoo 18**

**Step VI. 61 Axe 35 Banana 32 Orange 18 Zoo**

**Finally, we focus that step VI is the last step of above arrangement.**

**Remember in Step No. IV we found that the word Orange arrange itself.**